The phenomenon of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia is discussed in the literature most frequently in the context of what the Order left behind in the cultural landscape, in particular with regard to many spectacular castle architecture and one of the biggest castle systems in Europe.
The State of the Teutonic Order, which was established in Prussia seven centuries ago, is a phenomenon which puzzles and amazes every person who knows its history if only a little, and it is a source of constant fascination for its experts and enthusiasts. It had a huge impact on the further course of history and culture in the land it ruled. By creating one of the greatest castle systems in Europe, of which many have survived until this day, it has also left its indelible mark on the landscape of those areas.
In the period from the 13th to 14th century, a new state was established, its nature unique on the European scale. It is, certainly, one of the most intriguing states of medieval Europe. The thesis about its historical and cultural phenomenon has not been advanced so far, and no arguments have been presented to prove that thesis either.
I believe that this unique phenomenon comprises several historical aspects and processes.
- The State of the Teutonic Order was established completely from scratch, in one of the last parts of Europe which was not politically developed at that time. Prussian tribes had not created a state system in this land before, nor had they established any equivalent of state or state-forming structures, similar or even close to the territorial powers existing at the time in late medieval Europe. The State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia is the only example in medieval Europe of defence and settlement structures which have been built from scratch, in the almost complete wilderness, one of the last areas which at the time lacked permanent settlement structures.
- In the territory of the conquered Prussian tribes, the Order created, completely from scratch, a new state and administrative structure, operating in a consistent, ordered, and systemic manner. In addition, it did so based on the best and already proven patterns, experiences, and models of operation, very modern ones as for the 13th and 14th centuries, using, in particular, the Silesian experience. At the same time, the territories of other already existing territorial powers were redeveloped, while spatial structures were reconstructed, modernised, and adapted to new economic and settlement needs.
- The castle system, which was the fundamental defensive and administrative structure of the new state, was completely new and was also the greatest and best-organised castle network in Europe. The density of fortified structures in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia was among the highest in Europe at the time.
- As compared to other states and regions of late medieval Europe, the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia reached one of the highest urbanization and urban network density levels in newly-incorporated locations. As a fundamental aspect of the new state, the town network, together with the surrounding rural settlements, was also developed as a completely new settlement structure.
- In the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, the granting of municipal charters as well as new towns were built and developed in cruda radice, i.e. in an empty territory which has not been occupied up to that moment. That means that in all newly-founded cities the urban planning model that was perfect for the late Middle Ages was used, with the grid street plan.
- All of the abovementioned state-forming and settlement processes were completed in a very short time, within ca. 100 years, from 1280 to 1390, which was incredibly quickly for such long historical and cultural state-forming processes. In the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, those processes resulted in the instantaneous establishment of a completely new political reality of the region, as a new state with administrative and settlement structures as well as the castle system and urban network was created in non-developed Prussian lands.
- Stable borders were a positive factor in the development of the ideal new state structures. Such stability was guaranteed by, among other things, papal bulls concerning the territorial power over the land that was previously occupied by the conquered pagan Prussian tribes. The favourable political and social conditions in Prussia, resulting from, among other things, the stable borders of the State of the Teutonic Order after the final conquest of the Prussian tribes in 1283 (or already after the failure of the second Prussian uprising in 1274), had a positive effect on consistent settlement processes and on the gradual and steady development of the city network. The reliable borders and the stable political situation were a lot different from those existing at that time in the Polish land or in other parts of Europe, in particular in Central-Eastern Europe. The territory where the infrastructure of the State of the Teutonic Order was established in Prussia actually experienced a stable period of peace until 1410.
The points presented above are based on the analysis of several settlement and urban planning aspects of the structure of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, such as castles and the castle system, towns and the urban network, and the spatial arrangement of towns. Those aspects are still present in the cultural landscape of the region as the material heritage of the Teutonic Order and are an important part of my arguments supporting the thesis about the phenomenon of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
Therefore, let us look closer at the selected aspects of the material heritage of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, i.e. what that state left behind that is a testimony to its material historical and cultural heritage, which can be observed in the cultural landscape until today. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the structures of a new state were developed from scratch; the most important of their material aspects include: 1. castles and the castle system; 2. towns and the urban network; and 3. the spatial arrangement of towns.
1. Castles and the castle system
Owing to their importance and spectacular presence in the landscape, the castles of Teutonic Knights in Prussia are a great object of interest of researchers and, therefore, are described very often in the literature. The castles performed the function of authority, administration, military, and economic centres; and the biggest and most important of them, i.e. commandry castles, were also monasteries. That system, together with a professional administrative apparatus, enabled exceptionally efficient development and management of the conquered territory. The castle constructions, which are the material heritage of the late medieval State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, are present in the today’s historical and cultural landscape of the region; they have survived as a whole or in part, as foundation outlines or parts of walls.
In its State in Prussia, the Teutonic Order, together with bishops connected to it, created the greatest castle system in Europe. Over the period of one and a half century, an impressive network of about 150 castles was developed, which constitutes a unique civilization and cultural phenomenon both owing to the scale and the extent of the investment (the only late medieval fortified complex of that type in Europe) and to the construction material (bricks were used due to there being no sufficient amounts of stone in Prussia).
What is worth a separate analysis is the manner of creating the system of brick castles and its logistic consistency progressing in time and space. The development of the network and the spreading of more and more brick castle buildings accompanied the development of the state in the ordered and consistent manner, step by step, from west to east.
About 1400, the castle system of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia reached the peak of its development. As a result, the entire state territory was covered with a dense and even network of castles. The distances between individual castles did not exceed 20 or 30 kilometres, which was a consequence of practical issues related to communication, transport and settlement solutions. The even distribution of castles may be observed in particular in the territory occupied before by the conquered Prussian tribes, which had not been developed politically before; however, that model system was not implemented in Gdańsk Pomerania, the region incorporated into the State of the Teutonic Order but developed politically before by Pomeranian dukes, which can be easily seen on the map presented above.
2. Cities and the urban network
The urban network of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia is the material aspect of its historical and cultural heritage to which I would like to dedicate the most space in this paper. The development of settlements in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia progressed step by step, following the expanding castle network. They provided military defence and administrative support in the process of town incorporations. Within the period of ca. 100–120 years, an impressive system of almost 100 new cities was developed, one of the densest city networks of the late Middle Ages, the civilisation and cultural phenomenon which was unique in Europe.
The genius of the network of towns, developed based on previous experience, in particular the Silesian experience, as well as the even covering of Prussia with a regular town network, one which is like a model layout for late Middle Ages, are reflected by the modern city system in Warmia and Masuria. Over 90 per cent of towns in that region have its roots in the late Middle Ages, as they were established during the period of the State of the Teutonic Order.
At present, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, there are 49 cities, and 38 out of them were established in the 13th and 14th centuries. In addition, four towns (Giżycko, Ryn, Szczytno, and Węgorzewo) were established as a result of a transformation of a castle settlement, while the origins of three more towns (Biała Piska, Mikołajki, and Orzysz) date back to villages which existed already in the late Middle Ages, and were granted municipal charters in the modern era. Only two towns established in the 14th century (Dąbrówno and Srokowo) lost their charters, but it did not happen until after the World War II and was a result of significant destruction of large parts of the cities. However, clear fragments of medieval urban structures have survived. Only four towns existing today (Gołdap, Korsze, Olecko, and Ruciane-Nida), which is only 8 per cent, have no medieval roots whatsoever.
In total, as many as 47 out of 51 cities or villages, i.e. 92 per cent, have their urban or settlement roots in the Middle Ages. It can be said with a great certainty that the current city network of the Warmian-Masurian region reflects the late medieval city network of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
Now, let us move on to present the origins of the development of the town network in Prussia as compared to other Central European regions of the late Middle Ages. The State of the Teutonic Order is the only example of a medieval European state where defensive and settlement structures were developed from scratch, in a nearly complete wilderness. In the 13th century, Prussia was one of the last areas in which there were no pre-urban settlement structures typical for other states and regions from that historic period.
According to one of the hypotheses advanced by certain researchers, state authority is one of necessary conditions for the development of early towns. That theory explains why there were no developed pre-urban centres in the land occupied by Prussian tribes. Before the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, where the population is estimated to have reached ca. 170,000 at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, it is difficult to talk about towns at all. However, two forms of settlement centres existed there, i.e. small rural settlements called “lauks”, which were usually family settlements, and market settlements called “liszki” (their name came from “licis” meaning “camp, fortified place”).
In the meantime, well-developed systems of pre-urban settlement centres or early-urban settlements already existed in other territories in the 12th century. These were pre-urban complexes which were fortified gords with suburbium embankments, surrounded with open settlements and craftsmen hamlets and well-developed market settlements with their own separate charters, which were the basis for a new town network created since the 13th century. Such early urban complexes had not been known in the tribal territories in Prussia, and thus it may be concluded that the town network arrangement in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia was developed from scratch.
Here, it is worth quoting several more comments taken from the works written by Tadeusz Laik, well appreciated in the circles of academics researching the issues of medieval cities, namely the comments concerning the network of small towns as a very characteristic phenomenon of the Central-Eastern Europe urbanisation in the late Middle Ages. Laik maintains that, in general, the network of small towns developed based on the 12th century
network of markets (villa fori or villa forensis), and it was those markets that were the most important element in that part of Europe in the process of establishment and development of the town network, which, in general, consisted in the transformation of a market settlement into a town by granting it with a charter under the Magdeburg Law. Such transformations were only changes in the social and legal situation of the inhabitants of such settlements, most frequently related to the development of internal colonisation.
At the same time, in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, we can observe the incorporation of new towns rather than long-term processes of spatial and legal transformations of pre-existing pre-urban settlements. In Prussia, urban colonisation mostly involved incoming people, who were encouraged to migrate with, among other things, beneficial forms of the Chełm Law. Towns were incorporated as a result of decisions made to accomplish some predetermined goals of economic policies rather than as a consequence of consistent development processes and social and economic transformations of the region.
Laik stipulates a typology of the late medieval urban settlements in various Polish regions; he distinguishes four basic types of towns: 1. transformed fortified gords, 2. transformed market settlements, 3. transformed villages, and 4. new incorporations. Only the latter type required clearing new lands in non-developed forests or other wastelands and establishing new settlements.
Therefore, it was mainly due to the transformation of already existing settlements and granting them with charters that in the late Middle Ages there were a large number of chartered towns in Central Europe. Laik maintains that in the 15th century, in the Polish land, there were almost 500 communes with town charters. At the same time, in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, there were as many as 97 new incorporations, i.e. a large number of new towns may be observed in a relatively small territory, with a relatively high density of that town network. Moreover, let us repeat that towns in Prussia were established through the incorporation process in cruda radice rather than as a transformation in the legal situation of already existing pre-urban settlements.
At this moment, we should move on to the issue of the spatial structure of towns in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia. However, let us stop for a moment longer and look at the model solutions of the urban-rural settlement systems in the late Middle Ages.
We already know that the structure of the town network in the State of the Teutonic Order was developed based on the best experience with settlement solutions, already proven in practice, most frequently in Silesia. Towns were linked to their surrounding rural settlements and together formed the so-called “Stadt–Land Kolonisation” complexes. That spatial arrangement consisted in the establishment of a system of villages located around a centrally situated town. This meant that village residents could, practically within a day, travel to the town to sell their produce, buy goods, or attend to any necessary business, and then return to their settlements before dusk. Therefore, the distances between newly incorporated towns usually did not exceed 20-30 km. That system was usually characterised by an even arrangement and was adapted to the economic needs of the simultaneously developing and colonised rural lands rather than to the administrative and economic functions, as was the case in the period before incorporation through town charters.
In Prussia, a new and, as such, the then most modern “Stadt-Land Kolonisation” settlement model was commonly used. There, a town and the surrounding villages were established at the same time, and in this way a pre-planned model urban-rural settlement circle was created. That model was modified in various ways during the development of colonisation in Central Eastern Europe. It was quite commonly used in Silesia in many areas which had not been developed before. Using the experience from Silesia and other colonised lands to a great extent, the State of the Teutonic Order applied the model and improved it in the incorporation processes in Prussia, developing, as a result, a perfect territorial settlement system, characteristic of the late Middle Ages.
At the beginning of the incorporation period, the town establishment processes were sometimes experimental and not always successful; such was the situation with e.g. Braniew. However, already by the end of the 13th century and at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, when the settlement processes in Prussia suddenly intensified, some more and more stable forms of procedure were developed based on the earlier town incorporation experience. They were, obviously, used by the Order when creating the town network in Prussia, both in the context of the city network under development and the model spatial arrangements of newly-established towns. Therefore, it may be said that in Prussia we are dealing with the process of town incorporation which had already been well developed and, as a result, was a model process.
In Prussia itself, we can observe a great regularity of the town network, which results from the fact that all town incorporations were actually new settlement processes rather than legal acts of granting charters. That can be seen clearly in the map, when we compare the regularity of the town network in Prussia with that in Gdańsk Pomerania, the territory incorporated in the State of the Teutonic Order in 1309. In Pomerania, the Order only granted new charters to the network consisting of already existing towns established by Pomeranian dukes. That region already had an existing town network with an appropriate density, which had been tested and proven in practice. Therefore, since a sufficiently dense network had already operated in Gdańsk Pomerania, further incorporations in that area were simply unnecessary.
After the final conquest of Prussia in 1283 or already after the failure of the second uprising in 1274, very good political conditions in the Teutonic Order in Prussia enabled the gradual and consistent development of the urban network. The territory of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia enjoyed peace until 1410. That stable political situation differed much from the one existing e.g. in the neighbouring Polish territory or in other Central European states and regions. Around 1405, the city network of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia reached its peak. That date coincides almost completely with the peak of the development of a brick castle network around 1400. That was, obviously, the culminating point in the development of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, followed by the period of crisis at the beginning of the 15th century and the related breakdown of development processes of state settlement structures, which had been stable up to that point.
3. Spatial structure of towns
The spatial structure of towns is another, third, material aspect of the heritage of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia that is visible in the cultural landscape today.
The town incorporation processes in the late Middle Ages in various Central European regions usually run simultaneously, in two manners, i.e. as an evolution of fortified gord or market settlements, where the effect of the arrangements of earlier suburbium, pre-urban, or market settlements on the urban layout of cities was visible, or as the establishment of towns in cruda radice. That latter process involved an exceptionally regular arrangement of a town, as there was no need to adjust the designs to the elements of the earlier spatial arrangement or already existing constructions, e.g. the grid street layout. That model, which was commonly used in Prussia, influenced the designs and spatial arrangements of newly-established towns. As a result, model examples of gothic urban planning were created.
In other Central European regions, including the Polish land, towns were incorporated mainly through town translocation due to the pre-existing arrangements of earlier constructions or a complex ownership structure. Town translocations made expropriations easier, and that was more important than any topographic reasons.
Spatial arrangements of towns resulted from many factors and, as a consequence, depended on the spatial arrangements of pre-existing gords, suburbia around those gords, pre-urban settlements, and market settlements. The 12th-century market settlements called villa forensis, which were characteristic of colonised lands east of Elbe, were established based on a broad street. That arrangement was still used until the middle of the 13th century. For example, Środa Śląska was established based on the arrangement involving a great market street, which was a basic spatial element of all early town incorporated under German Law. The spatial arrangement of towns developed, obviously, in an evolutionary process. In Silesia, it reached its height in the second half of the 13th century in the form of a grid street layout with a rectangular market.
That well-developed grid street layout was commonly used since the very beginning in the towns incorporated in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, where almost all towns were founded in cruda radice. The regular urban structure described as the grid street layout has several characteristics: a city is developed according to a pre-adopted design in the shape of a square or a rectangle, with a regular arrangement and functional and proportional layout, taking into account local topographic conditions. A market or a broad main street is a central element of the urban space, with a city hall, commercial buildings, and workshops; from there, a network of streets spreads, the so-called grid, with a peripheral location of a parish church.
In the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, that spatial arrangement of cities was almost the only one used, which was perfect for the late Middle Ages; that feature of urban planning is one of the elements of the phenomenon of the State of the Teutonic Order. The spatial arrangement of a medieval town has survived with no greater changes until today. It is visible in the urban cultural landscape and constitutes one of the material aspects of the heritage of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
At the end of this synthetic presentation, I would like to point to several properties of the town network of the State of the Teutonic Order. Its development followed the expansion of the castle network and progressed together with the territorial development of the state in an ordered and consistent manner, step by step, from west to east. As a result, almost the whole state territory between the lower Vistula and the Pregolya was covered with a dense an even network of 97 newly-established towns.
In the non-developed land that was earlier occupied by conquered Prussian tribes, there had been no pre-urban settlements typical for other Central European regions. Therefore, one can observe almost exclusively new incorporations there, and the town network of the State of the Teutonic Order was developed completely from scratch. As a result, the locations of new towns are distributed evenly, in particular in Prussia, using the best model settlement solutions of the “Stadt-Land Kolonisation” type, well-known in the late Middle Ages, and the best-developed grid street layout of the towns incorporated in cruda radice. Those settlement processes are among the fundamental arguments supporting the hypothesis concerning the phenomenon of the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
Therefore, the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia is the example of the urban settlement structure which is a model structure for the late Middle Ages. It should be emphasised again that the town network has survived until today in an almost unchanged form; it is visible in today’s historical and cultural landscape of the region and is a very important, though underappreciated, element of the material heritage of that state.
To sum up, a conclusion may be formed that as a result of the abovementioned facts related to the settlement and urban-planning processes, a unique model of a late medieval European state was established in Prussia, with the most modern, as for the 13th and 14th centuries, structural solutions, a spatial settlement layout, and a commonly used late medieval grid street layout. Within only ca. 100 years, the largest and best-organised castle system and town network were developed. That was a state structure created based on the stat-of-the-art solutions of the late Middle Ages. In that manner, we are able to learn about the perfect model of a late medieval state and its settlement structure. Therefore, we have sufficient grounds to put forward and defend a thesis that the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia is, as has been mentioned before, the perfect model of a late medieval European state and a multidimensional historical phenomenon on a European scale.
 M. Jackiewicz-Garniec, M. Garniec, Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w dawnych Prusach, Olsztyn 2006, p. 6.
 M. Arszyński, Budownictwo warowne zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach (1230–1454),Toruń 1995;idem, Zamki i umocnienia krzyżackie,w: Państwo zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach,ed. Z.H. Nowak and R. Czaja, Toruń 2000, pp. 29–43; J. Gancewski, Rola militarna zamków krzyżackich w Prusach w XIV–XV w. Uwagi do powstania i funkcjonowania systemów obronnych, w: Wielkie wojny w Prusach, ed. W. Gieszczyński, N. Kasparek, Olsztyn 2010; M. Jackiewicz-Garniec, M. Garniec, Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w dawnych Prusach. Powiśle, Warmia, Mazury,Olsztyn 2006; M. Stokowski, Krzyżacy – ich państwo i zamki,Wrocław 2002; T. Torbus, Zamki konwentualne w państwie krzyżackim w Prusach,Gdańsk 2014;R. Sypek, Zamki i obiekty warowne państwa krzyżackiego, Warszawa 2000.
 A. Halemba, Wybrane aspekty dziedzictwa państwa zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach jako przyczynek do badań świadomości historycznej społeczności regionu warmińsko-mazurskiego,in: Życie społeczno- kulturalne w państwie zakonu krzyżackiego (XIII–XVI w.),Olsztyn 2016, pp. 183–199. In the original maps drawn up by me and presented in this work, I show the territorial development of the castle system in 1230–1400 and of the city network in 1230–1450, divided into twenty-years’ stages.
 List of the towns of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Na mapie website, http://na-mapie.info/wojewodztwo/warminsko-mazurskie/, [accessed on 17.03.2017]; Entry: Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie – miasta (Warmian-Masovian Voivodeship – cities), wikipedia.org, https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojew%C3%B3dztwo_warmi%C5%84sko-mazurskie#Miasta, [accessed on 17.03.2017] – 49 locations with town/city charters are listed.
 L. Leciejewicz, Początki miast w nadbałtyckiej Europie,w: Czas, przestrzeń, praca w dawnych miastach. Studia ofiarowane Henrykowi Samsonowiczowi w sześćdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin,ed. A. Wyrobisz, M. Tymowski, Warszawa 1991, pp. 106–109; H. Łowmiański, Podstawy gospodarcze formowania się państw słowiańskich,Warszawa 1953, p. 179 et seq.
 G. Labuda, Prusy i Jaćwież w przededniu inwazji krzyżackiej,in: Dzieje Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach. Gospodarka, Społeczeństwo, Państwo, Ideologia,ed. M. Biskup, G. Labuda, Gdańsk 1986, p. 73.
 K. Modzelewski, Organizacja grodowa u progu epoki lokacji, “Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej XXVIII” 1980, No. 3, pp. 329–340; M. Młynarska-Kaletynowa, Rozwój sieci miejskiej na Śląsku na przełomie XII/XIII i w XIII w., “Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej XXVIII” 1980, No. 3, pp. 349–361.
 Market settlements – villa fori – charter type popular in the 12th century all over Europe, commonly used in the colonised territories east of Elbe; such settlements were transformed into towns after some time, but not always; S. Gawlas, Funkcje modernizacyjne modelu gospodarczego kolonizacji niemieckiej,in: R. Czaja, M. Dygo, S. Gawlas, G. Myśliwski, K. Ożóg, Ziemie polskie wobec Zachodu, Studia nad rozwojem średniowiecznej Europy,ed. S. Gawlas, Warszawa 2006, pp. 94–116.
 T. Laik, Geneza sieci miasteczek w Polsce średniowiecznej,w: Studia średniowieczne, PAN, Warszawa 2006, pp. 350–365.
 However, the desire to attract settlers resulted in the Teutonic Order regulating certain issues for them more favourably; S. Gawlas, op. cit., pp. 100–101.
 T. Laik, op. cit., p. 353.
 S. Gawlas, op. cit., pp. 98–100.
 T. Jasiński, Stosunki śląsko-pruskie i śląsko-krzyżackie w pierwszej połowie XIII wieku,in: Ars historica. Prace z dziejów powszechnych i Polski, red. M. Biskup i inni, Poznań 1976, s. 393–403; S. Gawlas, op. cit., p. 99.
 H. Samsonowicz, Tendencje rozwoju sieci miejskiej w Polsce późnośredniowiecznej, “Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej XXVIII” 1980, No. 3, p. 345; M. Bogucka, H. Samsonowicz, Dzieje miast i mieszczaństwa w Polsce przedrozbiorowej, Wrocław 1986, p. 81.
 S. Gawlas, Przełom lokacyjny w dziejach miast środkowoeuropejskich,in: Civitas Posnaniensis, Studia z dziejów średniowiecznego Poznania, ed. Z. Kurnatowska, Poznań 2005, pp. 133–162; M. Rębkowski, Pierwsze lokacje miast w księstwie Zachodniopomorskim. Przemiany społeczne i kulturowe, Kołobrzeg 2001; J. Wyrozumski, Rozwój sieci miejskiej w Małopolsce w średniowieczu i u progu czasów nowożytnych, “Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej XXVIII” 1980, No. 3; Z. Górczak, Najstarsze lokacje miejskie w Wielkopolsce (do 1313 r.), Poznań 2002, p. 86 et seq.; T. Laik, Stare Miasto w Łęczycy. Przemiany w okresie poprzedzającym lokację – schyłek XII i początek XIII w., “Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej IV” 1956, No. 4, pp. 631–678.
 S. Gawlas, op. cit., pp. 100–102; Z. Zdrójkowski, Lokacje osad targowych klasztornych i miast na prawie średzkim (1223–1477), in: Studia z dziejów Środy Śląskiej, regionu i prawa średzkiego, red. R. Gladkiewicz, Wrocław 1990, pp. 215–242.